Engineers turn scientific principles into practical applications for such fields as transportation, civil construction, energy production, and mining, among others. A bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline is the typical minimum requirement for a job. However, many advanced engineers, particularly in management, also have master's degrees or higher.

Here's what engineers earned in Minneapolis according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 2014, the most recent year for which complete annual statistics are available:

- Electrical engineers design, develop, test, or oversee the production, installation, and use of electrical components, devices, or systems They earned an average $93,180 annually, or $44.80 per hour. The lowest-paid 10 percent received less than $63,120 per year, or $30.35 per hour while the upper 10 percent made over $132,230 yearly, or $63.57 hourly.

- Electronics engineers, not including hardware engineers, focus on the design and development of electronic components, including global positioning systems, broadcast towers, and portable media players. They received a mean $81,040 per year, or $38.96 an hour. Those at the lower end earned under $57,390 annually, or $27.59 hourly. Those at the top end made over $114,390 a year, or $54.99 an hour.

- Mechanical engineers create, produce, and test mechanical devices ranging from manual construction tools to sophisticated train engines. They averaged $83,920 a year, or $40.35 an hour. Annual pay ranged from $55,630 to $117,980, which equals an hourly $26.75 to $56.72.

- Civil engineers plan, develop, and maintain large-scale construction project that are often government-financed, such as highways, airports, sewer treatment plans, and bridges. They were paid a mean $83,930 yearly, or $40.35 hourly. The lowest wages were less than $54,060 annually, or $25.99 hourly, and the highest reached over $118,700 a year, or $57.07 an hour.

- Computer hardware engineers design the physical components of computer systems, such as central processing units, circuit boards, routers, and memory. They averaged $95,930 annually, or $46.12 hourly. The lowest earners received $61,980 per year, or $29.80 per hour, while the top tier made over $140,680 yearly, or $67.63 hourly.

- Engineering managers take charge of groups of engineers and technicians so they can complete their assigned tasks. Managers typically have the minimum bachelor's degree of an engineering discipline plus several years of experience with increasing responsibility. They averaged $144,680 per year, or $69.56 per hour. The annual range was from $88,700 to $187,199, which equaled $42.68 to $90 hourly.

Knowing what engineers average and earn at the high and low ends enables employees to gauge the desirability of any job offers and allows employers to set rates that attract qualified applicants.